|Football - the most popular team game in the world where a small number of points must be fought between two teams. The history of "foot ball" has a lot of centuries. In different ball game similar to soccer, played in the Ancient East (Egypt, China), in the ancient world (Greece, Rome), France ("pas sup '), Italy (" Calci ") and in England. The immediate precursor of European football was, in her likelihood of a Roman "Garpastum." In this game, which was a type of military training legionnaires should hold the ball between two uprights. In ancient Egypt, like a football game was known in 1900 BC. Oe. In ancient Greece, the ball game was popular in various forms in the 4th. BC. e., as evidenced by juggling a ball boy image on the ancient Greek amphora, stored in a museum in Athens. Among the warriors of Sparta, was a popular ball game "episkiros" which was played and the hands and feet. This game was the Romans called "Garpastum" ("hand ball") and some have modified rules. Their game is distinguished by cruelty. It is thanks to Roman invaders game and the ball in the 1st. Mr. Oe. became known as the British Isles, quickly gained recognition among native Britons and Celts. The Britons were worthy disciples - 217 n. Oe. in Derby for the first time they won the team of Roman legionnaire s.
Around 5. This game has disappeared along with the Roman Empire, but her memory remained with Europeans, and especially in Italy. Even the great Leonardo da Vinci, whom contemporaries described as a closed person, reserved in the manifestation of emotion, not stay indifferent to it. In his "biography of the most famous painters, sculptors and architects," we read: "In his desire to excel, he found himself not only in painting or sculpture, but competed in his favorite Florentine boys playing foot ball." When in the 17th century. supporters of the executed King Charles I fled to Italy, where they met with this game, and after ascending the throne in 1660, Charles II brought her to England, where she began playing court. Srednevekovsh football in England was wearing an extremely reckless and rude nature, and the game itself is, in effect, dump the wild in the streets. The English and the Scots were playing a life and death. Not surprisingly, the government waged a stubborn war with football, there were even issued orders banning the royal game. April 13, 1314 the inhabitants of London, was read by a royal decree of Edward II, under pain of imprisonment banning game in town ... In 1365 came the turn of Edward III to ban football, because the troops chose this game to perfection in archery. Richard II in his ban referred to in 1389 and football, and bones, and tennis. T-shirt liked and ate eduyuschim English monarchs - from Henry IV to James P.
But the popularity of football in England was so great that it could not interfere, and royal decrees. It was in England the game was called "football", though it was not for official recognition of the game, and when her ban. In the early 19th century. in the UK has moved from the "football crowd" to organized soccer first rules that were developed in 1846 at Rugby School and two years later refined in Cambridge. And in 1857 in Sheffield was the world's first football club. Six years later, representatives from seven clubs have already met in London, which would establish a level playing field and to organize national football associations.
It was founded in 1863, have been developed and the world's first official rules of the game, got a few decades later universal acceptance. Three of the thirteen sections of the rules point to the prohibition of the game with his hands in different situations. Only in 1871, the goalkeeper was allowed to play with his hands. Rules are strictly defined field size (200x100 yards or 180x90 m) and a thief from (8 yards, or 7 cm M32, remained unchanged). Until the late 19th century. The English Football Association and ate out a number of changes: it was determined the size of the ball (1871) introduced the angular ud al (1872), in 1878 the judge began to use the whistle, from 1891 to the gate there was a grid and began to break through the 11-meter penalty kick (penalty kick) . In 1875, the rope connecting the poles replaced the crossbar at a height of 2.44 m above the ground. A grid for the gates have been used and patented by an Englishman Brodie of Liverpool in 1890. The judge on the football field for the first time he appeared in 1880-1881. Since 1891, the judge began to leave the field with two assistants. Change and improve the rules, of course, affect the tactics and technique. Since 1873 has its roots history of international football match and she started the match teams of England and Scotland, which ended in a draw 0-0. Since 1884 in the British Isles began razp-undermining the first official international football tournament involving England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland (such tournaments are held annually and now).
In the late 19th century. football began to gain popularity in Europe and Latin America.
In 1904 at the initiative of Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Switzerland, an International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA).|